Monday, April 18, 2011

Occurrence of Petroleum Process

Crude oil (In English: petroleum, from the Latin: petrus), also dubbed as the black gold is a viscous liquid, dark brown or greenish flammable, which is located in the upper layers of some areas of the earth's crust. Petroleum and natural gas derived from ocean microorganisms, plants and animals that died approximately 150 million years ago. The remains of these organisms to settle on the ocean floor, then covered by mud. Mud layer gradually turned into rocks because of the influence of pressure on top layer. Meanwhile, with increasing pressure and temperature, anaerobic bacteria outlines the remnants microorganisms and converted it to oil and gas.

The process of oil and gas formation takes millions of years. Oil and gas seep formed in the porous rock such as water in the rock. Oil and gas can also migrate from one region to another, then terkosentrasi if blocked by an impermeable layer. Even though oil and natural gas are formed on the ocean floor, many of petroleum resources located in the mainland. This occurs because the movement of the earth's crust, so that some of the ocean into the land.

Today there are two main theories developed on the origins of petroleum, among others :

1. Inorganic Theory (abiogenesis)

Barthelot (1866) suggested that the oil contained in the alkali metals, which in a free state with high temperatures will be in contact with CO2 to form asitilena. Then Mandeleyev (1877) suggested that petroleum is formed due to the influence of steam on the carbide-carbide metal in the earth. Even more extreme is the claim some experts who argue that oil began to form since prehistoric times, long before the earth was formed and together with the formation of the earth. The statement was based on the fact finding of hydrocarbon material within a few rocks and meteors in the atmosphere some other planet. Generally stated as below:

Based on the theory of inorganic, petroleum formation based on chemical processes, namely:

a. The theory of heat alkalization with CO2 (Berthelot)

The reactions that occur :
alkali metal + CO2 ................... karbida
karbida + H2O ........................ ocetylena
C2H2 ....... C6H6 ................... other components

In other words that there is oil in the alkali metals in a state of free and high temperature. When CO2 from the air in contact with hot alkali before then will be formed ocetylena. Ocetylena will be changed to benzene due to high temperatures. The weakness of this metal is not available free of alkali metal in the earth's crust.
b. The theory of heat carbide with water (Mendeleyef)
The assumption used is no iron carbide in the earth's crust which is then in contact with water to form hydrocarbons, the weakness is not enough carbide in nature.